Malignant mesothelioma (MM) of childhood is a rare but important neoplasm. Eighty children with a previous diagnosis of MM were identified. Four of the 80 children had exposure to known risk factors (two had history of exposure to asbestos, one had received radiation therapy, and one had been exposed in utero to isoniazid). Tissue slides were available for independent and joint review by a panel of three pathologists in 22 of the cases. Ten were accepted as MM, nine were reclassified as other malignancies, and three were considered tumors of uncertain nature. Six of the ten children with MM were boys, and four were girls. Eight had pleural tumors, and two had peritoneal tumors. Four died at 7, 8, 18, and 48 months after diagnosis; three remained alive at 19, 20, and 59 months; and three had no follow-up. This review suggests that MM of childhood is a valid entity with a grave prognosis. The tissue diagnosis is difficult and is best made by a panel of pathologists. The available evidence does not support a causal relationship between MM and asbestos, radiation, or isoniazid.