Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent infectious disease in the world. In recent years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of TB due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and the increased numbers of highly susceptible immuno-compromised individuals. Central nervous system TB, includes TB meningitis (TBM-the most common presentation), intracranial tuberculomas, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. Individuals with TBM have an initial phase of malaise, headache, fever, or personality change, followed by protracted headache, stroke, meningismus, vomiting, confusion, and focal neurologic findings in two to three weeks. If untreated, mental status deteriorates into stupor or coma. Delay in the treatment of TBM results in, either death or substantial neurological morbidity. This review provides latest developments in the biomedical research on TB meningitis mainly in the areas of host immune responses, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease.
Keywords: TBM; Western University of Health Sciences; glutathione; meta-analysis; tuberculosis meningitis.