Wholegrain Consumption and Risk Factors for Cardiorenal Metabolic Diseases in Chile: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 2016-2017 Health National Survey

Nutrients. 2020 Sep 14;12(9):2815. doi: 10.3390/nu12092815.


Wholegrain (WG) consumption has been associated with reduced risk factors for cardiorenal metabolic diseases (CRMD). In Latin-America. WG intake is low and scarce studies on this subject have been found. We aimed to evaluate the association between WG consumption and risk factors for CRMD in the 2016-2017 Chilean-National Health Survey. This cross-sectional study included 3110 participants representative of a total population of 11,810,647 subjects > 18 y, not taking insulin and with complete data on CRMD risk factors. Outcomes were metabolic syndrome and its components, albuminuria, and impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR). WG consumption was categorized as regular (≥every two days), sporadic (≥once a month), and non-consumers. Associations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regressions adjusted for confounders taking into account the complex sample design of the survey. Regular WG consumers showed a lower risk of high blood pressure (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41-0.91) compared to non-consumers in fully-adjusted models. Although inverse associations were noticed with other metabolic syndrome components and impaired GFR, none was statistically significant. The association between WG and BP remained robust in the sensitivity analysis. In conclusion regular WG consumption was associated with a 39% lower risk of high blood pressure in Chilean adults.

Keywords: Latin America; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; metabolic syndrome; wholegrain.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Chile
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet / adverse effects
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Eating / physiology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology
  • Whole Grains*
  • Young Adult