Three-dimensional surgical accuracy between virtually planned and actual surgical movements of the maxilla in two-jaw orthognathic surgery

Korean J Orthod. 2020 Sep 25;50(5):293-303. doi: 10.4041/kjod.2020.50.5.293.


Objective: To investigate the three-dimensional (3D) surgical accuracy between virtually planned and actual surgical movements (SM) of the maxilla in twojaw orthognathic surgery.

Methods: The sample consisted of 15 skeletal Class III patients who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery performed by a single surgeon using a virtual surgical simulation (VSS) software. The 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained before (T0) and after surgery (T1). After merging the dental cast image onto the T0 CBCT image, VSS was performed. SM were classified into midline correction (anterior and posterior), advancement, setback, anterior elongation, and impaction (total and posterior). The landmarks were the midpoint between the central incisors, the mesiobuccal cusp tip (MBCT) of both first molars, and the midpoint of the two MBCTs. The amount and direction of SM by VSS and actual surgery were measured using 3D coordinates of the landmarks. Discrepancies less than 1 mm between VSS and T1 landmarks indicated a precise outcome. The surgical achievement percentage (SAP, [amount of movement in actual surgery/ amount of movement in VSS] × 100) (%) and precision percentage (PP, [number of patients with precise outcome/number of total patients] × 100) (%) were compared among SM types using Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Results: Overall mean discrepancy between VSS and actual surgery, SAP, and PP were 0.13 mm, 89.9%, and 68.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SAP and PP values among the seven SM types (all p > 0.05).

Conclusions: VSS could be considered as an effective tool for increasing surgical accuracy.

Keywords: Surgical movements of the maxilla; Three-dimensional analysis; Two-jaw orthognathic surgery; Virtual orthognathic surgery.