Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing among pregnant women because of the opioid epidemic, yet there are no interventions to reduce perinatal HCV transmission or to treat HCV during pregnancy. Physiological changes in pregnancy alter the pharmacokinetics of some medications; thus, our aim was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ledipasvir 90 mg plus sofosbuvir 400 mg during pregnancy with non-pregnant women.
Methods: This was an open-label, phase 1 study of pregnant women with genotype 1 HCV infection and their infants. A reference group of women who had participated in pharmacokinetic studies of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir during phase 2 and 3 trials was used. Participants were enrolled at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, USA) between 23 and 24 weeks' gestation and had a 12-week course of oral ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (daily 90 mg ledipasvir plus 400 mg sofosbuvir). Three 12-h intensive pharmacokinetic visits were done at 25-26, 29-30, and 33-34 weeks' gestation and individual pharmacokinetics were summarised by geometric mean across the three visits. The primary outcome, analysed in all participants without suspected dosing errors, was the ledipasvir-sofosbuvir area under the concentration-time curve of the dosing interval (AUCtau) during pregnancy compared with the reference group by geometric mean ratio. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02683005.
Findings: From Oct 1, 2016, to Sept 30, 2018, 29 pregnant women were screened and nine (31%) were enrolled. Eight (89%) women were included in the primary analysis. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir exposures were similar in the pregnant women versus the non-pregnant reference group (geometric mean ratio of AUCtau ledipasvir 89·3% [90% CI 68·7-116·1]; sofosbuvir 91·1% [78·0-106·3]).
Interpretation: Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir was safe and effective without clinically meaningful differences in drug exposure among pregnant versus non-pregnant women.
Funding: National Institutes of Health/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health/Office of Research on Women's Health, and Gilead Sciences.