The differentiation of neuronal stem cells into polarized neurons is a well-coordinated process which has mostly been studied in classical non-human model systems, but to what extent these findings are recapitulated in human neurons remains unclear. To study neuronal polarization in human neurons, we cultured hiPSC-derived neurons, characterized early developmental stages, measured electrophysiological responses, and systematically profiled transcriptomic and proteomic dynamics during these steps. The neuron transcriptome and proteome shows extensive remodeling, with differential expression profiles of ~1100 transcripts and ~2200 proteins during neuronal differentiation and polarization. We also identified a distinct axon developmental stage marked by the relocation of axon initial segment proteins and increased microtubule remodeling from the distal (stage 3a) to the proximal (stage 3b) axon. This developmental transition coincides with action potential maturation. Our comprehensive characterization and quantitative map of transcriptome and proteome dynamics provides a solid framework for studying polarization in human neurons.
Keywords: axon; cell biology; development; hiPSC-derived neuron; neuroscience; polarity; proteome; transcriptome.
© 2020, Lindhout et al.