How fructophilic lactic acid bacteria may reduce the FODMAPs content in wheat-derived baked goods: a proof of concept

Microb Cell Fact. 2020 Sep 17;19(1):182. doi: 10.1186/s12934-020-01438-6.


Background: FODMAPs (Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) intake is associated with the onset of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. FODMAPs in wheat-derived baked goods may be reduced via bioprocessing by endogenous enzymes and/or microbial fermentation. Because of the inherent enzyme activities, bread made by baker's yeast and sourdough may result in decreased levels of FODMAPs, whose values are, however, not enough low for people sensitive to FODMAPs.

Results: Our study investigated the complementary capability of targeted commercial enzymes and metabolically strictly fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) to hydrolyze fructans and deplete fructose during wheat dough fermentation. FLAB strains displayed higher fructose consumption rate compared to conventional sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Fructose metabolism by FLAB was faster than glucose. The catabolism of mannitol with the goal of its reuse by FLAB was also investigated. Under sourdough conditions, higher fructans breakdown occurred in FLAB inoculated doughs compared to conventional sourdough bacteria. Preliminary trials allowed selecting Apilactobacillus kunkeei B23I and Fructobacillus fructosus MBIII5 as starter candidates, which were successfully applied in synergy with commercial invertase for low FODMAPs baking.

Conclusions: Results of this study clearly demonstrated the potential of selected strictly FLAB to strongly reduce FODMAPs in wheat dough, especially under liquid-dough and high oxygenation conditions.

Keywords: Bread; FODMAP; Fructans; Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria; IBS; Wheat flour.

MeSH terms

  • Bread
  • Disaccharides / metabolism
  • Fermentation
  • Food Microbiology
  • Fructans / metabolism*
  • Fructose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillales / growth & development*
  • Lactobacillales / metabolism*
  • Leuconostocaceae / metabolism
  • Mannitol / metabolism*
  • Monosaccharides / metabolism
  • Oligosaccharides / metabolism
  • Triticum / chemistry*
  • beta-Fructofuranosidase / metabolism*


  • Disaccharides
  • Fructans
  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Fructose
  • Mannitol
  • beta-Fructofuranosidase

Supplementary concepts

  • Fructobacillus fructosus