Structure-Guided Optimization of Dipeptidyl Inhibitors of Norovirus 3CL Protease

J Med Chem. 2020 Oct 22;63(20):11945-11963. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01252. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Abstract

Acute gastroenteritis caused by noroviruses has a major impact on public health worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. The disease impacts most severely immunocompromised patients, the elderly, and children. The current lack of approved vaccines and small-molecule therapeutics for the treatment and prophylaxis of norovirus infections underscores the need for the development of norovirus-specific drugs. The studies described herein entail the use of the gem-dimethyl moiety as a means of improving the pharmacological activity and physicochemical properties of a dipeptidyl series of transition state inhibitors of norovirus 3CL protease, an enzyme essential for viral replication. Several compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme in biochemical and cell-based assays. The pharmacological activity and cellular permeability of the inhibitors were found to be sensitive to the location of the gem-dimethyl group.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / chemical synthesis
  • Antiviral Agents / chemistry
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Dipeptides / chemical synthesis
  • Dipeptides / chemistry
  • Dipeptides / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Structure
  • Norovirus / drug effects*
  • Norovirus / enzymology
  • Peptide Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Protease Inhibitors / chemical synthesis
  • Protease Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship

Substances

  • Antiviral Agents
  • Dipeptides
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Peptide Hydrolases