There continues to be a reluctance to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. The debate on whether the short-term outcomes translate to a difference in long-term benefits remains. This article intends to review the pulmonary vasculature changes that can occur with a chronic hemodynamically significant PDA in a preterm infant. It also explains the rationale and decision-making involved in a diagnostic cardiac catheterization and transcatheter PDA closure in these preterm infants.
Keywords: congestive heart failure; neonatology; patent ductus arteriosus; pediatrics; preterm infant; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary vascular resistance; surgical ligation of PDA; trans-catheter PDA closure.