The choreography of complex immune responses, including the priming, differentiation, and modulation of specific effector T cell populations generated in the immediate wake of an acute pathogen challenge, is in part controlled by chemokines, a large family of mostly secreted molecules involved in chemotaxis and other patho/physiological processes. T cells are both responsive to various chemokine cues and a relevant source for certain chemokines themselves; yet, the actual range, regulation, and role of effector T cell-derived chemokines remains incompletely understood. In this study, using different in vivo mouse models of viral and bacterial infection as well as protective vaccination, we have defined the entire spectrum of chemokines produced by pathogen-specific CD8+ and CD4+T effector cells and delineated several unique properties pertaining to the temporospatial organization of chemokine expression patterns, synthesis and secretion kinetics, and cooperative regulation. Collectively, our results position the "T cell chemokine response" as a notably prominent, largely invariant, yet distinctive force at the forefront of pathogen-specific effector T cell activities and establish novel practical and conceptual approaches that may serve as a foundation for future investigations into the role of T cell-produced chemokines in infectious and other diseases.
Copyright © 2020 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.