Prevalence and outcome of contrast-induced nephropathy in major trauma patients

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2022 Apr;48(2):907-913. doi: 10.1007/s00068-020-01496-w. Epub 2020 Sep 19.


Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been well investigated in patients undergoing coronary angiography, but not in trauma patients. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to investigate independent risk factors for the development of CIN.

Methods: Between 2008 and 2014, all pre-hospital intubated major trauma patients with documented serum creatinine levels (SCr) undergoing a contrast-enhanced whole-body CT at admission were retrospectively analyzed. CIN was defined as a relative increase in SCr > 25% over the baseline value or an absolute SCr increase of > 44 µmol/l within 72 h. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify significant risk factors. A p value of < 0.01 was considered statistically significant and a p value of 0.01-0.049 suggested evidence.

Results: Of 284 analyzed patients, 41 (14%) met the criteria for CIN. There is suggestive evidence that age and lactate level influenced the development of CIN. Six patients (15%) had hemodialysis in the CIN-group and eight (3.3%) in the group without CIN. Complication and mortality rate was higher in patients with CIN (71% vs. 56% and 32% vs. 23%, respectively). CIN was not an independent risk factor for complications or mortality while controlling for age, gender, injury severity score, and lactate level. The length of stay was not affected by CIN.

Conclusion: CIN occurs frequently in trauma patients, but is not an independent risk factor for complications or mortality. Therefore, contrast enhanced whole-body CT can safely be performed in trauma patients.

Keywords: Computed tomography; Contrast; Nephropathy; Trauma.

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Diseases* / chemically induced
  • Kidney Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Lactic Acid
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Contrast Media
  • Lactic Acid