Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the Litos drug-coated balloon (DCB) versus plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) for reduction of late lumen loss (LLL) in patients with critical limb ischemia undergoing below-the-knee (BTK) intervention.
Background: Restenosis after balloon angioplasty of BTK arteries approximates 70%. Previous studies of DCBs in BTK arteries produced conflicting results.
Methods: ACOART-BTK (Evaluation of the Use of ACOTEC Drug-Eluting Balloon Litos® in Below-the-Knee Arteries to Treat Critical Limb Ischemia) is a randomized controlled single-center study. Inclusion criteria were critical limb ischemia (Rutherford class ≥4) and significant stenosis or occlusion >40 mm of at least 1 BTK vessel with distal runoff successfully treated with angioplasty. Six-month angiographic LLL was the primary endpoint. Occlusive restenosis at 6 months and clinically driven target lesion revascularization at 12 months were secondary endpoints.
Results: From January 2016 through January 2019, 105 patients with 129 BTK lesions were enrolled in the study. Mean lesion length was 168 ± 109 mm in the DCB group and 187 ± 113 mm in the POBA group (p = 0.30). Almost 70% of lesions were occluded at baseline in both groups. On 6-month angiography, mean LLL was 0.51 ± 0.60 mm in the DCB group and 1.31 ± 0.72 mm in the POBA group (p < 0.001); rates of occlusive restenosis were 8.6% and 48.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Twelve-month clinically driven target lesion revascularization occurred in 6 of 62 DCB-treated lesions (10%) versus 27 of 66 POBA-treated lesions (41%) (p < 0.001). Complete healing at 12 months was observed in 42 of 47 DCB-treated limbs (89.4) versus 35 of 47 POBA-treated limbs (74.5%) (p = 0.05); no major amputations occurred.
Conclusions: Litos DCBs strikingly reduced LLL, vessel reocclusion, and clinically driven target lesion revascularization compared with POBA in BTK angioplasty.
Keywords: BTK angioplasty; DCB; restenosis.
Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.