Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases in the world. Because of the high death rate associated with cancer and the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, patients require alternative strategies for its treatment. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has enormous medicinal properties and health benefits. In this review, we discuss the basic mechanism by which gingerol (an active component of ginger) modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways linked to cancer, including Nuclear Factors (NF-κB), Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), β-catenin, Growth Factors Receptors (EGFR, VEGFR); Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) and pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and COX-2). Both in vitro and in vivo studies support the role of gingerol in cancer. The efficacy of gingerol by clinical trials has also been reported. Importantly, natural agents are already in clinical trials against various kinds of cancer. An effort has been made through this comprehensive review to highlight the recent developments and milestones achieved in cancer therapies via studies based on different cell lines using gingerol.
Keywords: Cancer; NF-κB; gingerol; nuclear factors; signaling pathways; β-catenin.
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