The hygiene hypothesis posits that the decreased incidence of parasitic infection in developed countries may underlie an increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in these countries. As unique inflammation modulator of intracellular parasitism, Trichinella spiralis, or its excretory-secretory (ES) product, shows improved responses to allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis and autoimmune encephalomyelitis by exerting immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells in animal models. Research has shown that T. spiralis differs from other helminths in manipulation of the host immune response not only by well-known characteristics of its life cycle, but also by its inflammation modulation pathway. How the parasite achieves inflammation modulation has not been fully elucidated yet. This review will generalize the mechanism and focuses on ES immunomodulatory molecules of T. spiralis that may be important for developing new therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.
Keywords: Trichinella spiralis; excretory–secretory (ES); immunomodulatory; inflammatory disorders.