Shoulder biomechanics in normal and selected pathological conditions

EFORT Open Rev. 2020 Sep 10;5(8):508-518. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200006. eCollection 2020 Aug.


The stability of the glenohumeral joint depends on soft tissue stabilizers, bone morphology and dynamic stabilizers such as the rotator cuff and long head of the biceps tendon. Shoulder stabilization techniques include anatomic procedures such as repair of the labrum or restoration of bone loss, but also non-anatomic options such as remplissage or tendon transfers.Rotator cuff repair should restore the cuff anatomy, reattach the rotator cable and respect the coracoacromial arch whenever possible. Tendon transfer, superior capsular reconstruction or balloon implantation have been proposed for irreparable lesions.Shoulder rehabilitation should focus on restoring balanced glenohumeral and scapular force couples in order to avoid an upward migration of the humeral head and secondary cuff impingement. The primary goal of cuff repair is to be as anatomic as possible and to create a biomechanically favourable environment for tendon healing. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:508-518. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200006.

Keywords: anatomy; glenohumeral instability; humerus; ligaments; rehabilitation; rotator cuff; scapula; therapeutic implications.

Publication types

  • Review