The Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, angiographic trial testing combined colestipol hydrochloride and niacin therapy in 162 nonsmoking men aged 40 to 59 years with previous coronary bypass surgery. During two years of treatment there was a 26% reduction in total plasma cholesterol, a 43% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plus a simultaneous 37% elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This resulted in a significant reduction in the average number of lesions per subject that progressed (P less than .03) and the percentage of subjects with new atheroma formation (P less than .03) in native coronary arteries. Also, the percentage of subjects with new lesions (P less than .04) or any adverse change in bypass grafts (P less than .03) was significantly reduced. Deterioration in overall coronary status was significantly less in drug-treated subjects than placebo-treated subjects (P less than .001). Atherosclerosis regression, as indicated by perceptible improvement in overall coronary status, occurred in 16.2% of colestipol-niacin treated vs 2.4% placebo treated (P = .002).