The mutagenic activity of concentrates of urine from snuff users, cigarette smokers and non tobacco users has been investigated. A concentration procedure involving use of Sep-Pak C18 columns and elution with methylene chloride was used. The concentrates were assayed for mutagenicity towards strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium, both in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system, the post-mitochondrial liver fraction (S9) from Aroclor 1254 induced rats. The mean mutagenic activity of smokers' urine concentrates was 8.6 X 10(3) revertants per 24 h and significantly higher than the corresponding values for snuff users, abstinent snuff users and non tobacco users, which were (1.3, 1.3 and 0.9) X 10(3), respectively. No significant difference in mutagenic activity was found between urine from snuff users, whether using or abstaining from snuff, and urine from non tobacco users. It could thus be concluded that the level of urinary mutagens, isolated by adsorption on Sep-Pak C18 columns, is not elevated by habitual usage of Swedish wet snuff.