Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Reproxalap, a Novel Reactive Aldehyde Species Inhibitor, in Patients with Noninfectious Anterior Uveitis: Model for Corticosteroid Replacement

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Dec;36(10):732-739. doi: 10.1089/jop.2020.0056. Epub 2020 Sep 22.


Purpose: Topical corticosteroids used to treat ocular inflammation are associated with a high risk of clinically significant toxicities. Therefore, corticosteroid-sparing medications to treat ocular inflammation are needed. Noninfectious anterior uveitis (NAU) is a sight-threatening ocular inflammatory condition typically treated with topical corticosteroids. This corticosteroid-controlled comparator trial examines the safety and efficacy of reproxalap, a novel inhibitor of reactive aldehyde species (RASP), for the treatment of ocular inflammation, by using NAU as a model. Methods: Forty-five patients with mild-to-moderate acute NAU were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive reproxalap 0.5% ophthalmic solution (4 times daily for 6 weeks), prednisolone 1% ophthalmic solution (Pred Forte®, 4 times daily taper for 6 weeks), or a combination of reproxalap 0.5% ophthalmic solution (4 times daily for 6 weeks) and prednisolone 1% ophthalmic solution (twice daily taper for 6 weeks). Results: All treatments improved anterior cell count and grade, and no differences were observed in change from baseline between groups. Reproxalap monotherapy and combination therapy were statistically noninferior to prednisolone. The proportion of patients requiring rescue therapy was comparable across treatment groups. No safety issues were identified for reproxalap-treated patients, whereas treatment with prednisolone resulted in an average increase of intraocular pressure of ∼2 mm Hg. Conclusions: Reproxalap may be a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroids for patients with NAU and other forms of ocular inflammation. These results represent initial clinical evidence of the importance of RASP in ocular inflammation and the applicability of RASP inhibition to immune modulation in ocular disease. Clinical trial (NCT02406209).

Keywords: anti-inflammatory; clinical studies; eye drops; inflammation; reactive aldehyde species; reproxalap; uveitis.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage*
  • Aminoquinolines / adverse effects
  • Aminoquinolines / pharmacology
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage
  • Glucocorticoids / adverse effects
  • Glucocorticoids / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Prednisolone / administration & dosage
  • Prednisolone / adverse effects
  • Prednisolone / analogs & derivatives*
  • Prednisolone / pharmacology
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Uveitis, Anterior / drug therapy*


  • Aminoquinolines
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • prednisolone acetate
  • Prednisolone
  • reproxalap

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02406209