Urolithiasis in childhood

Pediatr Clin North Am. 1987 Jun;34(3):683-710. doi: 10.1016/s0031-3955(16)36262-9.


Urolithiasis occurs less frequently in children than it does in adults living in contemporary industrialized nations. However, renal calculi continue to be identified with greater frequency in certain children: those who live in some areas of North America (e.g., the Southeastern United States), in those with relatively common metabolic disorders such as idiopathic hypercalciuria or with congenital urinary tract malformations, and in patients who have remained immobilized for long periods. Evaluation of children with suspected urolithiasis should include a careful history and physical examination to identify associated symptoms and signs and factors known to predispose to calculus formation, appropriate radiographic and blood studies, and timed urine collections. Appropriate management varies with etiology but should include maintaining adequate fluid intake, and long-term monitoring of the activity of the stone disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acidosis, Renal Tubular / complications
  • Adult
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calcium / urine
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperoxaluria / complications
  • Male
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors / complications
  • Purines / metabolism
  • Uric Acid / blood
  • Uric Acid / urine
  • Urinary Calculi / diagnosis
  • Urinary Calculi / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Calculi / metabolism
  • Urinary Calculi / therapy


  • Purines
  • Uric Acid
  • Calcium