Comparison of Ligament-Repair Techniques for the Syndesmosis: A Simulated Cadaveric Weight-Bearing Computed Tomography Analysis

J Foot Ankle Surg. Nov-Dec 2020;59(6):1156-1161. doi: 10.1053/j.jfas.2019.08.037. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Abstract

Although the literature describes a variety of reconstructive techniques for the syndesmosis, only few studies offer comparative data. Therefore, the authors compared 2 different ligament repair techniques for the syndesmosis. Sixteen paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric lower limbs were embedded in polymethyl methacrylate mid-calf and placed in a custom-made weightbearing simulation frame. Computed tomography scans of each limb were obtained in a simulated foot-flat loading (75N) and single-leg stance (700N) in 5 different foot positions (previously reported data). One of each pair was then reconstructed via 1 of 2 methods: a free medial Achilles tendon autograft or a long peroneal tendon ligament repair. The specimens were rescanned, compared with their respective intact states and directly with each other. Measurements of fibular diastasis, rotation, anteroposterior translation, mediolateral translation, and fibular shortening were performed on the axial cuts of the computed tomography scans, 1 cm proximal to the roof of the plafond. There was no significant difference in fibular positioning with direct comparison of the reconstructions. Comparisons with their respective intact states, however, showed differences in their abilities to control reduction, most notably in the externally rotated and dorsiflexed positions of the foot. Neither reconstruction was clearly superior in restoring physiologic conditions. Only with a comparison of each technique to its respective intact state were differences between the techniques revealed, a benefit of this particular testing method.

Keywords: fibular position; imaging under load; ligamentous injury; reconstructive techniques; syndesmotic injury.

MeSH terms

  • Ankle Injuries* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ankle Injuries* / surgery
  • Cadaver
  • Humans
  • Lateral Ligament, Ankle*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Weight-Bearing