Alcohol-Mediated Renal Sympathetic Neurolysis for the Treatment of Hypertension: The Peregrine™ Infusion Catheter

Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2021 Mar;24:77-86. doi: 10.1016/j.carrev.2020.09.003. Epub 2020 Sep 7.


Renal sympathetic denervation using conventional non-irrigated radiofrequency catheters has potential technical shortcomings, including limited penetration depth and incomplete circumferential nerve damage, potentially impacting therapeutic efficacy. Against this background, second generation multi-electrode, radiofrequency and ultrasound renal denervation systems have been developed to provide more consistent circumferential nerve ablation. Irrigated catheters may allow deeper penetration while minimizing arterial injury. In this context, catheter-based chemical denervation, with selective infusion of alcohol, a potent neurolytic agent, into the perivascular space, may minimize endothelial, intimal and medial injury while providing circumferential neurolysis. Animal studies demonstrate pronounced renal norepinephrine level reductions and consistent renal nerve injury after perivascular alcohol infusion using the Peregrine Catheter. Early clinical studies demonstrated significant blood pressure reductions and a reasonable safety profile. Randomized sham-controlled trials (NCT03503773, NCT02910414) are underway to examine whether the aforementioned theoretical advantages of alcohol-medicated denervation with the Peregrine System™ Kit translate into clinical benefits.

Keywords: Alcohol-mediated neurolysis; Chemical neurolysis; Hypertension; Renal denervation; Sympathetic nervous system.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure
  • Catheter Ablation* / adverse effects
  • Catheters
  • Hypertension* / surgery
  • Kidney / surgery
  • Renal Artery / diagnostic imaging
  • Renal Artery / surgery
  • Sympathectomy


  • Antihypertensive Agents

Associated data