Oligosaccharide Antigen Conjugation to Carrier Proteins to Formulate Glycoconjugate Vaccines

Methods Mol Biol. 2021:2183:305-312. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0795-4_15.


Conjugation, that is, covalent linkage, to immunological proteins is a common strategy to address the low immunogenicity issue of carbohydrate antigens in vaccine development. This chapter describes an easy and efficient method for oligosaccharide-protein conjugation employing dicarboxylic acid linkers. In this regard, a free amino group is introduced to an oligosaccharide antigen to facilitate coupling with the bifunctional linker upon reaction with its corresponding disuccinimidyl ester. The resultant monosuccinimidyl ester of the oligosaccharide antigen then reacts with the free amino groups of a carrier protein to provide the desired oligosaccharide-protein conjugate.

Keywords: Carrier protein; Conjugation; Dicarboxylic acid linker; Glycoconjugate; Oligosaccharide; Vaccine.

MeSH terms

  • Adamantane / analogs & derivatives
  • Adamantane / chemistry
  • Carbohydrates / chemistry
  • Carrier Proteins / chemistry*
  • Cyclic N-Oxides / chemistry
  • Dicarboxylic Acids / chemistry
  • Electrophoresis
  • Esters
  • Glycoconjugates / chemistry*
  • Glycoconjugates / immunology*
  • Oligosaccharides / chemistry*
  • Oligosaccharides / immunology*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / chemistry*
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / immunology*


  • 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl
  • Carbohydrates
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Dicarboxylic Acids
  • Esters
  • Glycoconjugates
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Vaccines, Conjugate
  • Adamantane