Rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their climate warming effects have triggered a global response in research and development to reduce the emissions of this harmful greenhouse gas. The use of CO2 as a feedstock for the production of value-added fuels and chemicals is a promising pathway for development of renewable energy storage and reduction of carbon emissions. Electrochemical CO2 conversion offers a promising route for value-added products. Considerable challenges still remain, limiting this technology for industrial deployment. This work reviews the latest developments in experimental and modeling studies of three-dimensional cathodes towards high-performance electrochemical reduction of CO2. The fabrication-microstructure-performance relationships of electrodes are examined from the macro- to nanoscale. Furthermore, future challenges, perspectives and recommendations for high-performance cathodes are also presented.
Keywords: CO2 use; cathodes; electro-catalysis; electrochemical reduction of CO2; modeling; nanomaterials; three dimensional electrodes.