Objective: This study was designed to provide an indirect comparison of the urinary and sexual domain outcomes and complications after newer minimally invasive surgical therapy (MIST) of Aquablation, Rezum, and UroLift for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Methods: We searched Embase, Medline, and Cochrane in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, in December 2019. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that reported outcomes after treatment of BPH for prostate less than 80 g with Aquablation, Rezum, or UroLift were included in the analysis. Results: A total of four RCTs reporting the outcomes after treatment with newer MIST for BPH were identified. Patients undergoing the resective procedures, that is, TURP and Aquablation, had greater improvement in urinary domain outcomes: International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, peak flow rate, and postvoiding residual compared to patients undergoing nonresective procedures: UroLift and Rezum. Patients in UroLift group maintained a higher sexual function domain score compared to TURP, but not Aquablation. Our multiple comparison analysis did not reveal a significant difference in urinary and sexual domain scores between patients undergoing UroLift and Rezum at 24 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Aquablation and TURP necessitate general or regional anesthesia and both produced significantly better urinary domain scores compared to Rezum and UroLift. On the other hand, UroLift demonstrated better sexual function domain scores compared to TURP, but not Aquablation. There was no significant difference in urinary domain scores between UroLift and Rezum at 24 months of follow-up.
Keywords: Aquablation; BPH; Rezum; Urolift; benign prostatic hyperplasia; network meta-analysis; prostatic urethral lift; water vapor therapy.