Comparing Motor Competence of Sex- and Age-Matched Youth With Intellectual Disability From Brazil and the United States

Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2020 Sep 22;37(4):423-440. doi: 10.1123/apaq.2019-0185. Print 2020 Oct 1.


Youth with intellectual disabilities (IDs) demonstrate below-criteria motor competence (MC) compared with typically developing (TD) youth. Whether differences in MC exist for youth with ID from different countries is unknown. This study examined the MC of youth with ID from Brazil (BR) and the United States (US) and compared it with norms for TD youth as established by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). The authors measured 19 BOT-2 test items for bilateral coordination, balance, and upper limb coordination of 502 youth (BR = 252, US = 250) with ID (6-21 years). Raw scores were converted to %ceiling (percentile of highest expected scores). For all test items, no significant differences were seen between BR and US participants in %ceiling scores. Participants from both countries demonstrated equivalent to slightly below BOT-2 norms in 14 of the 19 test items, with lowest scores seen in contralateral synchronizing bilateral coordination, balancing on one leg, and ball handling.

Keywords: Bruininks–Oseretsky test of motor proficiency; childhood; country-specific differences; gross motor competence; variability of motor competence.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Brazil
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / ethnology*
  • Intellectual Disability / psychology
  • Male
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • United States