Incidence and Preoperative Predictor Factors of Gallbladder Cancer Before Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: a Systematic Review

J Gastrointest Cancer. 2021 Mar;52(1):68-72. doi: 10.1007/s12029-020-00524-7. Epub 2020 Sep 23.


Introduction: Many cases of gallbladder cancer (GBC) were made incidentally after cholecystectomy for presumed benign disease. The aim of this review is to assess the preoperative predictor factors of gallbladder cancer.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines when it was applicable. We conducted bibliographic researches on October 2nd, 2019, in the following sources: The National Library of Medicine through PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google scholar. We have assessed the univariate and multivariate analysis outcomes.

Results: We included ten studies. Incidence of incidental GBC was 0.36%. Seven studies reported age as a significant predictive factor of iGBC. Comorbidities were the second significant predictor. One study found that iGBC group was more likely to have elevated TB, DB, PAL, and ALT. Another study reported a significantly higher rate of TB, PAL, and AST. One study concluded that elevated CA19-9 combined with CEA or CA-125 was significantly more frequent in the group with iGBC. Polyps, porcelain GB, GB wall thickness, and CBD dilation were reported to be associated with iGBC. iGBC group were more likely to have solitary and larger GS and gallbladder wall thickening, essentially focal.

Conclusion: Incidence of iGBC was 0.365% varying between 0.19 and 1.6% of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and about 50% of GBC cases. This highlights the deficiency of preoperative diagnostic features. Despite the efforts made, the rate of this condition is still high, underlining the need of new radiological technologies.

Keywords: Gallbladder carcinoma; Incidence; Incidental; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic*
  • Gallbladder / diagnostic imaging
  • Gallbladder / pathology*
  • Gallbladder / surgery
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / blood
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / etiology
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • Gallstones / complications
  • Gallstones / diagnosis
  • Gallstones / pathology
  • Gallstones / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Incidental Findings
  • Polyps / epidemiology*
  • Polyps / pathology
  • Preoperative Period
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Ultrasonography


  • Biomarkers, Tumor