Co-fermentation of lentils using lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus subtilis natto increases functional and antioxidant components

J Food Sci. 2020 Sep 16. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15349. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

We identified lentil products with both nutritional value and antioxidant capacity by studying the changes of probiotics and functional substances during single fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or co-fermentation using LAB and Bacillus subtilis natto. After fermentation, the best growth of LAB was observed in anaerobic solid-state co-fermentation, whereby the viable counts of Lactobacillus plantarum TK9 and Lactobacillus paracasei TK1501 reached 2.77 × 109 and 2.78 × 109 CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, the total phenol and genistin content produced by the two mixed groups, respectively, increased by 0.52- and 0.66-fold, as well as 0.63- and 0.64-fold, compared with unfermented samples. Similarly, the free amino acid content increased by 0.53- and 0.49-fold, respectively. The 50% inhibitory concentrations for the radical-scavenging against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were lower following anaerobic co-fermentation. Consistently, products of anaerobic mixed solid-state fermentation had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Therefore, anaerobic solid-state co-fermentation of lentils using B. subtilis natto may promote the multiplication of LAB and enhance the antioxidant activity of fermented lentil products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Simple and efficient food handling is more suitable for industrial production. Co-fermentation is a good method to optimize the fermentation process. Co-culture technology has high potential in terms of functionality and antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity; co‐fermentation; lentils; α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity.