Risk scores are widely used in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) prior to treatment decision-making at different points in time. At initial hospital presentation, risk scores are used to assess the risk for developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and can guide clinicians in either discharging the patients at low risk or swiftly admitting and treating the patients at high risk for MACE. During hospital admission, risk assessment is performed to estimate mortality, residual ischemic and bleeding risk to guide further in-hospital management (e.g., timing of coronary angiography) and post-discharge management (e.g., duration of dual antiplatelet therapy). In the months and years following ACS, long term risk can also be assessed to evaluate current treatment strategies (e.g., intensify or reduce pharmaceutical treatment options). As multiple risk scores have been developed over the last decades, this review summarizes the most relevant risk scores used in ACS patients.
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; risk scores; treatment decision-making.