A new potentiometric platform: Antibody cross-linked graphene oxide potentiometric immunosensor for clenbuterol determination

Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2021 Dec;68(6):1153-1158. doi: 10.1002/bab.2036. Epub 2020 Oct 12.


An immunosensor is based on the signal measurement obtained upon the reaction of an antibody antigen complex. It plays a significant role in various fields such as environmental analysis, production monitoring, drug detection or screening, veterinary medicine, and animal food. In this study, an antibody crosslinked graphen oxide (GO)-based potentiometric sensor has been developed for fast, simple, and economical detection of clenbuterol. In this context, the photosensitive amino acid bound GO platform is synthesized and used for the preparation of electrode material. Then, polymeric structure is characterized by infrared spectroscopy, and the performance of immunonano platform prepared by potentiometric sensor is evaluated. The effect of pH, response time, selectivity, and sensitivity is investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple and rapid method for the determination of clenbuterol from milk sample is established by immuno-potentiometric sensor. The detection limit has found to be 0.87 × 10-9 mmol L-1 for this immuno-potentiometric sensor. This immuno-potentiometric sensor has optimum pH at 7.0, a wide linear response (1.0 × 10-2 to 1.0 × 10-9 mmol L-1 ), rapid response time (2 Min) and 36 weeks operational lifetime.

Keywords: antibody cross-linked; clenbuterol; potentiometric sensor.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies / chemistry*
  • Clenbuterol / analysis*
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry*
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Immunoassay*
  • Potentiometry*


  • Antibodies
  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • graphene oxide
  • Graphite
  • Clenbuterol