Calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K2, and magnesium supplementation and skeletal health

Maturitas. 2020 Oct;140:55-63. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.05.020. Epub 2020 May 30.


Supplementation with calcium (Ca) and/or vitamin D (vitD) is key to the management of osteoporosis. Other supplements like vitamin K2 (VitK2) and magnesium (Mg) could contribute to the maintenance of skeletal health. This narrative review summarizes the most recent data on Ca, vitD, vitK2 and Mg supplementation and age-related bone and muscle loss. Ca supplementation alone is not recommended for fracture prevention in the general postmenopausal population. Patients at risk of fracture with insufficient dietary intake and absorption could benefit from calcium supplementation, but it needs to be customized, taking into account possible side-effects and degree of adherence. VitD supplementation is essential in patients at risk of fracture and/or vitD deficiency. VitK2 and Mg both appear to be involved in bone metabolism. Data suggest that VitK2 supplementation might improve bone quality and reduce fracture risk in osteoporotic patients, potentially enhancing the efficacy of Ca ± vitD. Mg deficiency could negatively influence bone and muscle health. However, data regarding the efficacy of vitK2 and Mg supplementation on bone are inconclusive.

Keywords: Calcium; Magnesium; Post-menopausal osteoporosis; Vitamin D; Vitamin K2.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / therapeutic use*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Fractures, Bone / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / therapeutic use*
  • Osteoporosis / prevention & control*
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin K 2 / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use*


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin K 2
  • Vitamin D
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium