Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue malignancy harboring t(X;18) resulting in fusion of two genes SS8 (at 18q11) and SSX (1, 2 or 4 at Xp11) forming the gene fusion product SS18-SSX. It affects adults in their 3rd-4th decades, most frequently in the para-articular regions of the extremities. Less than 10% of the cases occur within the head and neck region and of these, 60% occur in the neck and only 10% occur in the oral cavity. We report a synovial sarcoma of the tongue in a 14-year-old female patient with unusual histology. The patient presented with a mass occupying most of the tongue with extension into the floor of mouth and the lingual gingiva of the anterior mandibular teeth. The tumor was composed of a highly cellular proliferation of spindle cells in a herringbone pattern with many small vessels but without glandular structures, and with extensive calcifications throughout the tumor. Tumor cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and transducin-like enhancer of split-1, and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies identified SS18 gene rearrangement. The patient was managed with two debulking procedures followed by chemoradiation and is currently alive with disease.
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