Implant stability quotients (ISQ values) are obtained in dental clinical practice on a non-invasive basis by resonance frequency measurement rapidly after surgical placement of implants. The ISQ-values are used as indicator for mechanical implant stability, and are believed to have predictive power for clinical outcome. It is the aim of this review to provide a synopsis of all factors described in the literature that influence ISQ measurements by performing an exhaustive literature review; moreover, this review aims at elucidating the key factors relevant for a rapid clinical predictive assessment. We searched systematically and exhaustively all major databases for publications relating to ISQ measurement methodology and for ISQ-influencing factor analyses. The reports identified were ordered in experimental (preclinical) studies and in clinical publications. We were able to identify 13 basic factors influencing ISQ-measurements. Among these, local bone quality, playing a key role in such measurements, was subdivided in four specific subfactors; thus a total of 17 individual factors was identified and reported to influence ISQ-measurements. A comprehensive list of these factors is provided in Table-form. A critical analysis points out that only 6 of these factors are of a sound predictive power useful for a rapid clinical assessment; and only two of these factors appear to have a well-documented scientific basis.
Keywords: Dental implants; ISQ; Influencing factors; Resonance frequency analysis; Review.
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