Post COVID-19 syndrome associated with orthostatic cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome, small fiber neuropathy and benefit of immunotherapy: a case report

eNeurologicalSci. 2020 Dec;21:100276. doi: 10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100276. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Abstract

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a novel highly contagious infectious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV2. The virus affects the human respiratory and other systems, and presents mostly as acute respiratory syndrome with fever, fatigue, dry cough, myalgia and dyspnea. The clinical manifestations vary from no symptoms to multiple organ failure. Majority of patients fully recover. Several postinfectious presumably autoimmune complications of COVID-19 affecting the brain or peripheral large nerve fibers have been reported. This report describes a post COVID-19 patient who developed chronic fatigue, orthostatic dizziness and brain fog consistent with orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome (OCHOS), a form of orthostatic intolerance, and painful small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Initially, the patient was diagnosed with. OCHOS (detected by the tilt test with transcranial Doppler monitoring) and SFN (confirmed by skin biopsy), and both OCHOS/SFN were attributed to Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome of presumed autoimmune etiology. Patient recovered on symptomatic therapy. COVID-19 triggered exacerbation of OCHOS/SFN responded to immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulins. This case suggests that post COVID-19 syndrome may present as an autoimmune OCHOS/SFN and that early immunotherapy may be effective. Further studies are necessary to confirm the link between OCHOS/SFN and COVID-19 disease as well as to confirm the benefit of immunotherapy.

Publication types

  • Case Reports