Valve patch technique for repair of ventricular septal defect: long-term results

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2021 Mar;29(3):161-164. doi: 10.1177/0218492320962923. Epub 2020 Sep 26.


Objective: This study aimed to show the long-term results in patients who underwent unidirectional valve patch repair of ventricular septal defect with pulmonary artery hypertension.

Methods: Thirty-five acyanotic patients aged 2 to 26 years (mean 9.3 years) with a large ventricular septal defect and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (mean 9.5 Wood units) underwent surgery in Madani Heart Hospital. The medical records and clinical outcomes were reviewed from March 1998 to March 2017.

Results: Five patients died in the first postoperative week. In the long-term follow-up (mean 11 years), two patients were lost to follow-up. Pulmonary artery hypertension gradually decreased in 17 patients within 6-12 months with significant improvement in right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, New York Heart Association functional class, and tricuspid regurgitation. Eleven patients with persistent pulmonary artery hypertension were divided into tolerable and non-tolerable groups. Six patients in the tolerable group had satisfactory conditions compared to before the operation, and gained weight with improved functional class despite echocardiographic findings of persistent elevated pulmonary artery pressure. One had a full-term delivery by caesarean section in the fifth postoperative year. Five patients in the non-tolerable group gradually developed right heart failure and complications such as extremity edema, ascites, pleural effusions, and died after 10-30 months.

Conclusion: Although relatively high mortality occurred during long-term follow-up, surviving patients were in a better condition and functional class despite persistent pulmonary artery hypertension. Therefore, fear of persistent pulmonary artery hypertension should not prohibit surgery in this group of patients.

Keywords: Cardiac surgical procedures, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary artery hypertension.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arterial Pressure
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* / mortality
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / mortality
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / physiopathology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality
  • Postoperative Complications / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension / mortality
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Pulmonary Artery / physiopathology*
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Recovery of Function
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Resistance
  • Young Adult