Background: The RISE Pediatric Medication Study compared strategies for preserving β-cell function, including a 9-month follow-up after treatment withdrawal to test treatment effect durability.
Objective: Evaluate OGTT measures of glucose and β-cell response through 12 months of intervention and 9 months of medication washout.
Participants: Youth (n = 91) aged 10 to 19 years with BMI ≥85th percentile and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: A multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing insulin glargine for 3 months followed by metformin for 9 months (G→Met) or metformin alone (Met) for 12 months. We report within-group changes from baseline to end of medication intervention (M12), baseline to 9 months post-medication withdrawal (M21), and end of medication (M12) to M21. OGTT C-peptide index [CPI] paired with 1/fasting insulin evaluated β-cell response.
Results: At M12, both treatments were associated with stable fasting glucose (G→Met baseline 6.0 ± 0.1 vs M12 5.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = .62; Met baseline 6.1 ± 0.2 vs M12 6.0 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = .73) and 2-hour glucose (G→Met baseline 10.2 ± 0.4 vs M12 9.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P = .03; Met baseline 10.2 ± 0.4 vs M12 10.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = .88). Following medication withdrawal, fasting glucose worsened (G→Met M21 8.6 ± 1.8, P = .004; Met M21 7.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P = .003), as did 2-hour glucose (G→Met M21 13.2 ± 1.4, P = .002; Met M21 13.1 ± 1.2 mmol/L, P = .006), associated with declines in β-cell response.
Conclusions: G→Met and Met were associated with stable glucose measures during 12 months of treatment in youth with IGT or recently diagnosed T2D. Glucose and β-cell response worsened post-medication withdrawal, suggesting treatment must be long-term or alternative treatments pursued.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01779375.
Keywords: glucose tolerance; impaired glucose tolerance; insulin glargine; insulin response; insulin secretion; insulin sensitivity; medication; metformin; pediatric; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes; β-cell.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.