Background & aims: Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) is an infection in patients with cirrhosis and carries significant mortality. The management of SBP is evolving with the rise of multidrug resistant organisms. Our aim was to perform a retrospective analysis to determine if identification of bacteria in culture could aid in prognosis and provide information regarding optimal treatment.
Methods: We analyzed our 10-year experience of SBP in a single academic center (Northwestern Memorial Hospital). We obtained information regarding SBP prophylaxis, culture data and resistance patterns of bacteria, choice/duration of inpatient antibiotics, and key laboratory measurements and determined outcomes including mortality, hospital duration, and ICU stay.
Results: Patients with SBP had a 17.8% mortality and had culture positive SBP 34.4% of the time. Antimicrobial resistance was seen in 21.3% of cases and trended towards worsening mortality, with worsened mortality associated with first line use of piperacillin-tazobactam (p = 0.0001). Patients on SBP prophylaxis who developed SBP had improved mortality (p<0.0001) unless there was a positive culture, in which case patients had worsened mortality (p = 0.019). Patient with a higher PMN counts after repeat paracentesis had higher mortality (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: Our results show that SBP continues to be a morbid and deadly condition and identification of an organism is key in treatment. The standard initial antibiotic for SBP may need to be modified to reflect emerging resistant pathogens and gram-positive organisms. Further, antibiotic prophylaxis should be utilized only in select cases to prevent development of resistance.