Technical Performance Score: A Predictor of Outcomes After the Norwood Procedure

Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 Oct;112(4):1290-1297. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.07.039. Epub 2020 Sep 25.


Background: The Technical Performance Score (TPS) can predict outcomes after congenital cardiac surgery. We sought to validate TPS as a predictor of both short- and long-term outcomes of the Norwood procedure.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent the Norwood procedure from 1997 to 2017. We assigned TPS (class 1, no residua; class 2, minor residua; class 3, major residua or reintervention for major residua before discharge) based on subcomponent scores from discharge echocardiograms or unplanned reinterventions, or both. Multivariable Cox or competing risk analysis, adjusted for preoperative patient- and procedure-related covariates, examined the association of TPS with postoperative hospital length of stay, transplant-free survival, and postdischarge reinterventions.

Results: Among 500 patients, 319 (64%) were male, 54 (11%) were premature, 56 (11%) had noncardiac anomalies/syndromes, 146 (29%) had preoperative risk factors, and 480 (96%) were assigned TPS. On multivariable analysis, class 3 had greater hazard for reinterventions in transplant-free survivors (class 3: subdistribution hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-3.16; P = .001) and was associated with increased hospital length of stay vs class 1 (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.18-0.34; P < .001). Transplant-free survival after Norwood surgery was shorter for both class 2 (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.68-3.66; P < .001) and class 3 (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 2.18-4.95; P < .001).

Conclusions: TPS predicts early and late outcomes after Norwood. Absence of residual lesions results in improved long-term prognosis for single-ventricle patients. TPS may improve outcomes after Norwood by identifying patients warranting closer follow-up and potentially earlier reintervention.