A 15-year-old girl was followed up for 2 years in a district hospital for management of vesicoureteral reflux and, subsequently, hydronephrosis of both kidneys and required bilateral ureteroneocystostomy. Despite surgery, there was continuous progression of the left hydronephrosis. Referral to a tertiary hospital because of continued sterile pyuria prompted investigation for tuberculosis (TB): she was diagnosed with bilateral pulmonary TB and urine culture confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite tuberculous chemotherapy and dexamethasone, she required a left nephrectomy. Histology demonstrated necrotising granulomatous pyelonephritis. She remains well with normal function of the right kidney. Despite the rarity, chronic urinary tract disorders should always prompt investigation for tuberculosis.
Keywords: Urinary tuberculosis; adolescent; corticosteroid.