Cardiac Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematous: An Overview of the Incidence, Risk Factors, Diagnostic Criteria, Pathophysiology and Treatment Options

Cardiol Rev. 2022 Jan-Feb;30(1):38-43. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000358.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex connective tissue disease that can potentially affect every organ of the human body. In some cases, SLE may present with diverse cardiac manifestations including pericarditis, myocarditis, valvular disease, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and arrhythmias. Heart disease in SLE is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is unclear whether traditional treatments for coronary artery disease significantly impact mortality in this population. Current therapeutic agents for SLE include glucocorticoids, hydroxychloroquine, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, and B cell-directed therapies. This article will provide a comprehensive review and update on this important disease state.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Heart Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Heart Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Heart Diseases* / physiopathology
  • Heart Diseases* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / complications
  • Risk Factors