Development of a comprehensive Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy process model for procedural training: A Delphi-based experts consensus

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2020 Sep 30. doi: 10.1111/aas.13716. Online ahead of print.


Background: Deconstructing a complex procedure improves skills learning, but no model has covered all relevant Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy (PDT) procedural aspects. Moreover, the heterogeneity of techniques described may hinder trainees' competency acquisition. Our objective was to develop a PDT model for procedural training that includes a comprehensive step-by-step design.

Methods: Procedural descriptions were retrieved after a structured search in medical databases. Activities were extracted and the adherence to McKinley's dimensions of procedural competence was analyzed. We developed a comprehensive PDT model, which was further validated through a Delphi-based consensus of Spanish-speaking international experts.

Results: The 14 descriptions retrieved for analysis presented a median [interquartile range] of 18 [11-22] steps, covering 3 [2-4] of McKinley's dimensions. The Delphi panel's first model included all McKinley's dimensions, and was answered by 25 experts from nine countries, ending in the second round. The final model included 59 activities divided into six stages (51 from the initial model and eight proposed by experts) and performed by two operators (bronchoscopy and tracheostomy).

Conclusions: We have presented a PDT model that includes necessary competence dimensions to be considered complete. The model was validated by an experts' consensus, allowing to improve procedural training to promote safer patient care.

Keywords: Delphi methodology; airway management; medical education; process model; tracheostomy.