Neoadjuvant immunotherapy for melanoma

J Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar;123(3):782-788. doi: 10.1002/jso.26229. Epub 2020 Oct 1.


Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy, especially checkpoint blockade inhibitors, in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. More recently, improvements in survival have been reported in patients with high-risk resectable melanoma when these agents are used in the adjuvant setting. Increasing interest in neoadjuvant immunotherapy for high-risk resectable melanoma has been fueled by early reports of significant efficacy. We review the rationale and data behind utilizing neoadjuvant immunotherapy.

Keywords: checkpoint blockade; high risk; immunotherapy; melanoma; neoadjuvant; resectable.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic
  • Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
  • Humans
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Melanoma / immunology
  • Melanoma / therapy*
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors