Transient Effects of Applying and Removing Strain on the Mechanical Behavior of Rubber

Materials (Basel). 2020 Sep 29;13(19):4333. doi: 10.3390/ma13194333.


For viscoelastic materials, the relationship between stress and strain depends on time, where the applied strain (or stress) can be expressed as a step function of time. In the present work, we investigated two temporary effects in the response of viscoelastic materials when a given strain is applied and then removed. The application of strain causes a stress response over time, also known as relaxation. By contrast, recovery is the response that occurs following the removal of an applied stress or strain. Both stress and relaxation constitute transient stages of a viscoelastic material exposed to a permanent force. In the current work, we performed several experimental tests to record the recovery in response to the total or partial removal of the strain. By observing and analyzing the mechanical response of the material to strain, we deduced that recovery is a procedure not only related to creep but also to relaxation. Hence, we created a model that simulates the behavior of viscoelastic materials, contributing to the prediction of relevant results concerning different conditions.

Keywords: finite element model; recovery; relaxation; rubber; viscoelastic materials.