Oxidative stress is a common event in aerobic organisms and a fundamental and unavoidable cost of the aerobic lifestyle. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and iron (Fe) are the most common agents that trigger oxidative stress. A conserved enzyme in the S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) metabolism, GSNO reductase (GSNOR), modulates a multitude of abiotic and biotic stress responses. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of GSNOR as a master regulator in oxidative stress through its regulation of the interaction of ROS, RNS, and Fe, and highlight recent discoveries in post-translational modifications of GSNOR and functional variations of natural GSNOR variants during oxidative stress. Recent advances in understanding GSNOR regulation show promise for the modulation of oxidative stress in plants.
Keywords: GSNOR; biotic and abiotic stress; iron; natural variation; oxidative stress; post-translational modifications.
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