Experiences with Achieving Pregnancy and Giving Birth Among Transgender Men: A Narrative Literature Review

Yale J Biol Med. 2020 Sep 30;93(4):517-528. eCollection 2020 Sep.


Despite the burgeoning scholarship on transgender health and health care, the literature on transgender reproduction and reproductive medicine remains limited. In this narrative literature review, we examine recently published studies focused on the pregnancy and birth experiences of transgender men to provide an overview of the literature's major contributions and illuminate the gaps that exist within this research. Our review reveals that transgender men face substantial obstacles to achieving pregnancy and significant challenges during pregnancy and birth, which are informed by institutionalized cisnormativity embedded within medical norms and practices. This article demonstrates the importance of better understanding transgender men's reproductive health care needs in order to improve the quality of pregnancy-related health care delivery to this population. Our findings also provide insight for researchers, health care providers, and educators seeking to create and enhance gender-affirming medical education and training.

Keywords: childbirth; health care delivery; pregnancy; reproduction; transgender health.

Publication types

  • Review