Action Mechanism of Rosella ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Used to Treat Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly Women

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Sep 14;2020:5351318. doi: 10.1155/2020/5351318. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Objective: Rosella is a safe medicinal herb used by people in Indonesia. They believe that rosella is effective in controlling metabolic syndrome, working with antihypertension, antidiabetic, antidyslipidemia and antiobesity effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rosella in controlling metabolic syndrome through the secretion of blood nitric oxide (NO) and the cortisol pathway.

Methods: This study was a quasiexperimental, pretest-posttest with control group design. The total subjects were 18 people, women, and the elderly. Subjects were selected randomly into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) and treatment group (n = 8). The treatment was rosella tea, a dose of 2 grams, duration 2 times a day, given in the morning (08.00-8.30 a.m.) and evening (06.30-7.00 p.m.) after meals for 21 days. Examination of NO and cortisol levels was carried out using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

Results: There was a significant decrease in bodyweight (BW) (p = 0.021), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p = 0.049), glucose preprandial (FPG) (p = 0.014), total cholesterol (CT) (p = 0.001), triglycerides (TGs) (p = 0.014), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.010) after consuming rosella. NO levels were significantly increased (p = 0.012), whereas cortisol levels decreased significantly (p = 0.008) after therapy with rosella tea in elderly women.

Conclusion: Rosella has shown evidence to control and lower blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, and cortisol in the elderly with metabolic syndrome. Rosella is a traditional medicine that has the potential to be developed as a therapy for metabolic syndrome patients.