Significantly Lower Case-fatality Ratio of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) than Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong-A Territory-Wide Cohort Study

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 1;ciaa1187. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1187. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: The case-fatality ratios (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) appeared to differ substantially. We aimed to compare the CFR and its predictors of COVID-19 and SARS patients using a territory-wide cohort in Hong Kong.

Methods: This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study using data captured from all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and SARS patients were identified. The primary endpoint was a composite endpoint of intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and/or death.

Results: We identified 1013 COVID-19 patients (mean age, 38.4 years; 53.9% male) diagnosed from 23 January to 14 April 2020 and 1670 SARS patients (mean age, 44.4 years; 44.0% male) from March to June 2003. Fifty-five (5.4%) COVID-19 patients and 432 (25.9%) SARS patients had reached the primary endpoint in 30 days. By 30 June 2003, 286 SARS patients had died (CFR, 17.1%). By 7 June 2020, 4 COVID-19 patients had died (CFR, 0.4%). After adjusting for demographic and clinical parameters, COVID-19 was associated with a 71% lower risk of primary endpoint compared with SARS (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, .21-.40; P < .0001). Age, diabetes mellitus, and laboratory parameters (high lactate dehydrogenase, high C-reactive protein, and low platelet count) were independent predictors of the primary endpoint in COVID-19 patients, whereas use of antiviral treatments was not associated with primary endpoint.

Conclusions: The CFR of COVID-19 was 0.4%. Age and diabetes were associated with worse outcomes, whereas antiviral treatments were not.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; death; nCoV; pneumonia.