Human pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide unprecedented opportunities for cell therapies against intractable diseases and injuries. Both ESCs and iPSCs are already being used in clinical trials. However, we continue to encounter practical issues that limit their use, including their inherent properties of tumorigenicity, immunogenicity, and heterogeneity. Here, I review two decades of research aimed at overcoming these three difficulties.
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