AA Amyloidosis Secondary to Primary Immune Deficiency: About 40 Cases Including 2 New French Cases and a Systematic Literature Review

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Feb;9(2):745-752.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.023. Epub 2020 Sep 30.


Background: Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from defects in immune system. They lead to increased susceptibility to infections and immune dysregulation. The resulting chronic inflammation can induce long-term complications, including AA amyloidosis (AAA).

Objectives: To present the French cases of PID-related AAA and perform a systematic literature review to determine its main features and predisposing factors.

Methods: A systematic literature review was performed by searching MEDLINE up until 2019. New French cases were identified with the help of the Reference Center for Auto-Inflammatory Diseases and AA Amyloidosis and the Reference Center for Hereditary Immune Deficiencies.

Results: Forty patients were identified including 2 new French cases. PIDs were varied: immunoglobulin deficits (n = 30), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 3), hyper-IgM syndrome (n = 3), hereditary complete C4 deficiency (n = 1), leucocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 1), hyper-IgE syndrome (n = 1), and Chediak-Higashi syndrome (n = 1). The mean age at PID diagnosis was 22.2 ± 16.02 years. Renal involvement was the most common manifestation of AAA (80%). Infections were extremely heterogeneous; bacterial infection with pulmonary involvement was the most frequent. Bronchiectasis was particularly common (52.5%). The delay between the first symptoms of PID and AAA diagnosis was 16.18 ± 7 years. Thirteen concomitant diagnoses were made. Twenty patients died during follow-up.

Conclusion: AAA is a rare life-threatening complication of PID, especially in cases of long diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Bronchiectasis should be considered as a warning sign of chronic inflammation and increased risk of AAA.

Keywords: AA amyloidosis; Bronchiectasis; Chronic infections; Common variable immunodeficiency; Humoral deficiency; Long-term complication; Nephrotic syndrome; Primary immune deficiency; Prognosis; Systematic review.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Amyloidosis* / diagnosis
  • Amyloidosis* / epidemiology
  • Bronchiectasis*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes*
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases*


  • Immunoglobulins