Background and aims: Corona virus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread rapidly. Growing evidences that overweight and obesity which extent nearly a third of the world population were associated with severe COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the association and risk of increased BMI and obesity with composite poor outcome in COVID-19 adult patients.
Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from PubMed and Embase database. We included all original research articles in COVID-19 adult patients and obesity based on classification of Body Mass Index (BMI) and composite poor outcome which consist of ICU admission, ARDS, severe COVID-19, use of mechanical ventilation, hospital admission, and mortality.
Results: Sixteen studies were included in meta-analysis with 9 studies presented BMI as continuous outcome and 10 studies presented BMI as dichotomous outcome (cut-off ≥30 kg/m2). COVID-19 patients with composite poor outcome had higher BMI with mean difference 1.12 (95% CI, 0.67-1.57, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, obesity was associated with composite poor outcome with odds ratio (OR) = 1.78 (95% CI, 1.25-2.54, P < 0.001) Multivariate meta-regression showed the association between BMI and obesity on composite poor outcome were affected by age, gender, DM type 2, and hypertension.
Conclusion: Obesity is a risk factor of composite poor outcome of COVID-19. On the other hand, COVID-19 patients with composite poor outcome have higher BMI. BMI is an important routine procedure that should always be assessed in the management of COVID-19 patients and special attention should be given to patients with obesity.
Keywords: Body mass index; Covid-19; Obesity; Poor outcome.
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