Methamphetamine use continues to be an important public health problem. Contingency management is among the most effective interventions for reducing methamphetamine use. It has been more than ten years since the last systematic review of contingency management for methamphetamine use disorder. Since then, an additional ten randomized controlled trials and a variety of other studies have been completed. The present systematic review includes 27 studies. Several factors, most notably problem severity, appear to predict treatment outcome. However, the effectiveness of CM has been demonstrated in studies restricted to MSM, studies restricted to implementation in community programs, and in studies of the general population of methamphetamine users conducted in research treatment programs. There appear to be broad benefits of contingency management intervention, including greater drug abstinence, higher utilization of other treatments and medical services, and reductions in risky sexual behavior. Twenty of the twenty-one studies that reported abstinence outcomes showed an effect of contingency management on abstinence, and seven of the nine studies that reported sexual risk behavior outcomes showed an effect of contingency management in reducing risky sexual behavior. Taken together, recent evidence suggests strongly that outpatient programs that offer treatment for methamphetamine use disorder should prioritize adoption and implementation of contingency management intervention.
Keywords: Contingency management; Methamphetamine; Outpatient treatment; Predictors.
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